Vangueria infausta Burch. subsp. infausta
Common names: wild medlar (Eng.); wilde mispel (Afr.); Mpfilwa (Tsonga & Shangaan); Mmilo (Northern Sotho); muzwilu, mavelo (Venda); umViyo, umTulwa (Zulu); umVilo (Xhosa); umbizo, umViyo (Ndebele); Mmilo, mothwanyê (Tswana); and umVile, amantulwane (Swati) National tree list no.: 702
SA Tree No: 702
This species is one of South Africa's more popular veld fruits, and can be enjoyed while walking. This lovely little tree is considered to possess evil powers and not even the wood should be used for making fire. It is believed that it could cause cattle to bear only male offspring. Despite this, the plant is used extensively.
This is a deciduous shrub or small tree that varies in height from3-7 m, depending on the habitat. It can be single or multistemmed, but usually the latter. The bark is greyish to yellowish brown ,smooth and peeling in irregular small strips. The branchlets are covered with short, woolly hairs, especially when young. The leaves are single, oppositely arranged, as is typical of this family. The leaves are light green in colour, covered with soft, velvety short hairs and even more so when young. The margin of the leaf is entire.The shape of the leaf is elliptic to ovate with the net veining conspicuous below. When older, the leaves often appear twisted and are rough to the touch.
Soft, velvety, acorn-shaped buds appear either before or simultaneously with the new leaves around September to October. These open into small flowers, greenish white to yellowish in colour. They occur in clusters along the short lateral branches. The fruit is almost round, glossy dark green when young and changing to a light brown when ripe. The ripe fruit is soft and fleshy with a leathery skin that encloses 3-5 seeds embedded in soft pulp. The fruit is edible and has a pleasant sweet-sour, mealy taste. It tastes like an apple. It can be found on the plants from January to April. The remains of the old flower base can be seen on the tip of the fruit.
Distribution and habitat
This plant can be found in woodlands, scrub, on stony koppies or in sandy valleys. It is most common in open, exposed grassland.It occurs from the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, Limpopo, the North-West to Northern Cape.
Derivation of name and historical aspects
The generic name Vangueria was derived from the Madagascan name for Vangueria edulis: voa vanguer. The word infausta (Latin) means unlucky, referring to the magical properties it is believed to have.
Antelope graze the leaves. Bushbabies, monkeys, baboons, squirrels and bushpigs eat the fruit when ripe. Butterflies and flies visit the flowers. One often finds elongated, papillate galls on the leaves that are caused by insects.
The fruit is mostly eaten raw but in some parts it is stored as dried fruit to be used in time of food scarcity. It is said that mampoer, a strong alcoholic drink or brandy can be distilled from it or fermented to make beer. If mixed with a little water and sugar it produces an acceptable substitute for apple sauce. The fruit juice can also be used for flavouring purposes by squeezing it out in water, discarding the seed and skins. This is done often for flavouring porridge. According to Betsie Rood (1994) vinegar can be produced from the fruit. This plant has medicinal value as well. An infusion of the roots and leaves has been used to treat malaria, chest ailments like pneumonia, as a purgative and to treat ringworms. An infusion of the leaves is used for the relief of toothache. For the treatment of swelling of the limbs (especially in children) the affected parts are bathed in a decoction of the pounded leaves and small twigs.
Growing Vangueria infausta
The wild medlar is a hardy and drought resistant plant that can withstand moderate cold. It is rarely cultivated in the trade. It can be propagated from fresh seed or cuttings. To make sure that it germinates readily, remove the outer skin and the pulp. Sow in well-drained, sandy seedling mix.
This plant is slow growing, but would make an attractive garden plant if trimmed from the start to form a specimen plant.
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- Rood, B. 1994 Kos uit die veldkombuis. Tafelberg, Cape Town.
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- Venter, F. & Venter, J-A. 1996. Making the most of indigenous trees. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
- Watt, J.M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. Medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. Livingston, London.
Pretoria National Botanical Garden
Plant Type: Tree
SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape
Soil type: Sandy, Loam
Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer
PH: Acid, Alkaline, Neutral
Flower colour: Green, Cream
Aspect: Full Sun, Shade, Morning Sun (Semi Shade), Afternoon Sun (Semi Shade)
Gardening skill: Easy